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مُساهمةموضوع: Around the world   الأحد مايو 30, 2010 8:20 pm

[edit] Around the world


Following its foundation in the United Kingdom (UK), Scouting spread around the globe. The first association outside the UK was opened in Malta, which is independent now but was a British colony at the time. In most countries of the world, there is now at least one Scouting (or Guiding) organization. Each is independent, but international cooperation continues to be seen as part of the Scout Movement. In 1922 the WOSM started as the governing body on policy for the national Scouting organizations (then male only). In addition to being the governing policy body, it organizes the World Scout Jamboree every four years.[54]
In 1928 the WAGGGS started as the equivalent to WOSM for the then female-only national Scouting/Guiding organizations. It is also responsible for the various international centres such as Our Chalet.
Today at the international level, the two largest umbrella organizations are:



World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM), for boys-only and co-educational organizations.

World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS), primarily for girls-only organizations but also accepting co-educational organizations.



[edit] Co-educational


Scouts and Guides from different countries on World Scout Moot, Sweden, 1996



Worldwide there have been different approaches to co-educational Scouting. Countries such as the USA have maintained separate Scouting organizations for boys and girls.[55] In other countries, notably in Europe, Scouting and Guiding have merged, and there is a single organization for boys and girls, which is a member of both the WOSM and the WAGGGS.[56][57] In others, for example Australia and the United Kingdom, the national Scout association has opted to admit both boys and girls, but is only a member of the WOSM, while the national Guide association has remained as a separate movement and member of the WAGGGS. In Greece it is the other way around, as the national Guide association has opted to admit both boys and girls, the national Scout association accepts both boys and girls but they function as different organizations. In some countries like Slovenia and Spain there are separate associations of Scouts (members of WOSM) and guides (members of WAGGGS), both admitting boys and girls.
The Scout Association in the United Kingdom has been co-educational at all levels since 1991, but this has been optional for groups, and currently 52% of groups have at least one female youth member. Since 2000 new sections have been required to accept girls. The Scout Association has decided that all Scout groups and sections will become co-educational by January 2007, the year of Scouting's centenary.[58]
In the United States, the Cub Scout and Boy Scout programs of the BSA are for boys-only; however, for youths age 14 and older, Venturing is co-educational. The Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) is an independent organization for girls and young women only. Adult leadership positions in the BSA and GSUSA are open to both men and women.
In 2006, of the 155 WOSM member National Scout Organizations (representing 155 countries), 122 belonged only to WOSM, and 34 belonged to both WOSM and WAGGGS. Of the 122 which belonged only to WOSM, 95 were open to boys and girls in some or all program sections, and 20 were only for boys. All 34 which belonged to both WOSM and WAGGGS were open to boys and girls.[59]
WAGGGS had 144 Member Organizations in 2007 and 110 of them belonged only to WAGGGS. Of these 110, 17 were coeducational and 93 admitted only girls.[60][61][62]

[edit] Membership


Scouting 'round the world, 1977 edition



As of 2008, there are over 28 million registered Scouts and 10 million registered Guides around the world, from 216 different countries and territories.
Top 20 countries with Scouting and Guiding, sorted by membership. Full tables on List of World Organization of the Scout Movement members and List of World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts members.[63][22][64]


CountryMembership[65][66]Scouting introducedGuiding introduced
Indonesia 8,100,000 1912 1912
United States 7,500,000 1910 1912
India 4,000,000 1909 1911
Philippines 2,300,000 1910 1918
Thailand 1,250,000 1911 1957
United Kingdom 1,000,000 1907 1909
Bangladesh 1,000,000 1920 1928
Pakistan 590,000 1909 1911
Kenya 420,000 1910 1920
Korea 280,000 1922 1946
Germany[n.b. 1] 250,000 1910 1912
Canada 240,000 1908 1910
Japan 220,000 1913 1919
Italy[n.b. 2] 210,000 1910 1912
Uganda 210,000 1915 1914
France[n.b. 3] 200,000 1910 1911
Nigeria 160,000 1915 1919
Poland[n.b. 4] 160,000 1910 1910
Belgium[n.b. 5] 160,000 1911 1915
Hong Kong 150,000 1914 1916



<LI id=cite_note-66>^ Including 90,000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides, see Scouting in Germany for more information and references
<LI id=cite_note-67>^ Including 30,000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides, see Scouting in Italy for more information and references
<LI id=cite_note-68>^ Including 60,000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides, see Scouting in France for more information and references
<LI id=cite_note-69>^ Including 20,000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides, see Scouting in Poland for more information and references

^ Including 5,000 non-aligned Scouts and Guides, see Scouting in Belgium for more information and references




[edit] Nonaligned and Scout-like organizations


Girl Guides from the Polish ZHR, an associate member of the CES




Main article: Non-aligned Scouting and Scout-like organisations

Fifteen years passed between the first publication of Scouting for Boys and the creation of the largest supranational Scout organization, WOSM, and millions of copies had been sold in dozens of languages. By that point, Scouting was the purview of the world's youth, and hard to preserve as a monolith.
Alternative groups have formed since the original formation of the Scouting "Boy Patrols." They can be a result of groups or individuals who don't want to follow all the original ideals of Scouting but still desire to participate in Scout-like activities. Others maintain that the WOSM and WAGGGS are currently far more political and less youth-based than ever envisioned by Lord Baden-Powell. They believe that Scouting in general has moved away from its original intent, because of political machinations that happen to longstanding organizations, and seek to return to the earliest, simplest methods.[67][68]
In 2008, there were at least 539 independent Scouting organizations around the world.[61] 367 of them were a member of either WAGGGS or WOSM. About half of the remaining 172 Scouting organizations are only local or national orientated. About 90 national or regional Scouting associations have felt the need to create alternative international Scouting organizations to set standards for Scouting and to coordinate activities among member associations. Those are served by four international Scouting organizations:



Order of World Scouts - the first international Scouting organisation, founded in 1911.

Confédération Européenne de Scoutisme, established in 1978.

Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe, an independent faith-based Scouting organization founded in 1956.

World Federation of Independent Scouts, formed in Laubach, Germany, in 1996.

Some Scout-like organizations are also served by international organizations for example:




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